Fascia is a trim board that runs along the edge of the roof in a horizontal position.
Rake fascia runs along the edge of a gable or sloping portion of the roof.
Shingle mold runs along the face of the fascia just below the shingles, often in a rake installation.
A soffit is any ceiling-like condition. The flat board below the roof eave is a soffit. The ceiling on the porch is a soffit. The flat sheet below a cantilever is a soffit, as under the fireplace cantilever.
Soffit vents are metal grills that are located on the soffit under the roof eave. It is important that the builder provides protection inside the attic at each vent to prevent blown insulation from covering the soffit vents at the time of installation.
Roof vents are installed on the top of the roof to ventilate the attic. They are square in shape and generally 9”x9”. When the attic heats, the air rises out the roof vents and is replaced by fresh air from the soffit vents. If you are adding an attic installed exhaust fan, be sure there is adequate roof ventilation for the cubic feet of air being moved from the interior of the house into the attic.
A frieze is a 1×2 or 1×4 trim board bellow the soffit, installed as though it is supporting the soffit.
A rake box is the box like installation at the end of the gable at the corner of the roof. It has a piece of fascia that returns to the house. It is therefore referred to as a return.
Returns is also applied at the area that goes from the interior side of the wall around an opening to the side of a window.
Reveal is applied to numerous situations throughout the house. The space between the edge of a window and the window “trimmer” is called a reveal. Reveals should be uniform at the three sides of the window and all windows in the same sight line should match.
Window Wrap is the 1×4 trim around a window.
OVHD refers to the overhead door of the garage.
Brick Molding or Stone Molding is the 1x (by whatever) installed in a vertical position along the edge of the transition from the brick, stone, or whatever to the siding.
Skirt Board is a 1×8 or 10 installed around the bottom edge of the house.
Waist Band is a 1×8 or 10 installed around the sides of the house at the second level.
A Kite is a triangular piece installed at the peak of a gable.
Crawler vents are the metal, sliding vents that are installed into the main floor rim at the crawl space. They should provide cross ventilation whenever possible.
Monoposts are the steel posts that support beams. Generally, these posts have a threaded adjustable portion at the top of the post. Most often, you see them in the basements below an I-beam.
Studs come in varying dimensional sizes and lengths, i.e. 2×4 & 2×6. They are the wood members that are used to construct the exterior and interior partition and bearing walls
Headers can be constructed of 2×4, 6, 7,10, & 12” material. They are installed in multiply form in a horizontal position and are for carrying a load from above over an opening in a wall.
Kingstuds are studs that are nailed to the ends of the headers.
Trimmers are studs that are cut into a shorter length and set at the ends and under the header. In other words, they support the header.
Cripples are short lengths of cut studs that are used to support the windowsills and sometimes appear above or between headers. They are present over non-structural headers, at closests, and entry doors to various rooms.
Joists are members that are installed to create the spanning support for the floors.
Mudsill is the first board that is laid on top of the foundation with the foundation bolts extending through the board. It is set the width of the rim joist toward the inside of the wall from the exterior side. The rim joist holds the floor joists in place.
Truss is a prefabricated wood product. They are engineered to carry a specific load and provide the outline of the exterior and interior sides of the roof. Once the trusses are set in place they are secured to the top plate of the wall and sheeted with 1/2′” wood sheathing. The sheathing is then covered with 30# felt paper and shingles that are applied over that. Trusses are constructed of machine stress graded wood and the components that constitute trusses are bottom chords, webs, vertical cords, and top chords.
Girder Trusses are of generally heavy construction and carry other trusses and additional loads.
Roof Vents, Gable Vents & Soffit Vents provide ventilation to the attic. Their names describe the location of their placement. Attics should have a venting source on top of the roof to provide escape for heated air. The gable and soffit vents provide infusion of fresh, dry air into the attic to replace the roof vented air. It is as important to vent the air from the attic in the winter as in the summer. Inadequate venting of air from the attic in the winter can contribute to the build of condensation in the attic, which negates the effectiveness of the insulation. Attics should have 1sp. Ft. of venting in and out for every 150 sp. Ft. of attic.
Horizontal flashing is galvanized tin that is installed most often where the top of a lower roof joins the wall of an upper story and prevents water from entering at the point where the roof joins the wall.
Step Flashing is galvanized tin that is cut into squares and bent at 90-degree angles. As the shingles are installed, the bent squares are installed alternately between the shingles. The opposite side of the flashing is inserted under the exterior wall covering such as siding. As each “step” is installed, it seals the point where the roof meets the opposing wall along the rake line.
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